Q: What inspired you to create a program for disabled freedivers, and how long have you been developing the program?

A: My work with people with disabilities started as a lifeguard in the early 80s and then progressed with my becoming a scuba instructor in 1988. The following year, while working in the Cayman Islands as a dive instructor and boat captain, I was approached by a customer, an 88 year-old woman, whose name I’ll never forget...Geraldine Turner. She was using a walker and her brother was carrying her equipment as she approached me while I was prepping the boat for an afternoon two-tank excursion.

She asked me if I was the captain on her trip and then began to tell me how, due to her strength and mobility issues, we were going to work together. To her surprise I said, "No problem, how can I help you?" and together we enjoyed a one-on-one dive on the local reef while I was basically her DPV (Diver Propulsion Vehicle). Helping another person enjoy our underwater world was beyond rewarding for me.

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In 1990, I had a wonderful wheelchair-bound scuba customer who also really inspired me. She showed me with incredible enthusiasm that all people, on some level, can enjoy our oceans. During this time I also trained a hearing-impaired diver through to Divemaster level while I learned limited American Sign Language.

Since 2000, PFI has had many customers with varying disabilities, mostly amputees and hearing-impaired people, and we've done our best to help them adapt. One gentlemen in particular, Kelly Smith, inspired me to work more with people with disabilities and to develop a specialty program. Kelly was a Paralympian athlete from Canada, competing in category T54 long distance wheelchair events in which he won a silver medal in Athens. He took an Intermediate Freediver course with us in Kona and he achieved 30m/100ft using a monofin, binding his legs and using all upper body. The next year he joined us at our Deja Blue competition where he did 45m free immersion and also set the Canadian Static Apnea National Record of 7:24 which still stands today.

However, my greatest inspiration to develop an adaptive freediver program came from a student I met who would eventually become a good friend and colleague, Hubert Chrétien. Hubert is a passionate scuba instructor who specializes in working with people with disabilities through his non-profit organization Freedom At Depth. He has been teaching in that capacity since 1993 and is one of only two HSA (Handicapped Scuba Association) instructor trainers in the world. Hubert was a successful business person who decided to give it all up to dedicate himself to teaching people with disabilities. In December 2015, he was recognized with one of Canada’s highest civilian honors, the Meritorious Service Medal, for his inspiring work. Hubert eventually went through PFI’s Instructor Program with the hopes of helping his disabled clients and together we decided to develop a program for PFI based on the philosophies and structures of the HSA.

In the summer of 2014, Hubert trained me as a HSA Instructor and, immediately afterward, we taught an Intermediate Freediver course for five of his clients. We have since taught three different Intermediate Freediver level programs to his customers with disabilities ranging from amputees to polio-affected limbs to a woman who is a paraplegic. This past May, after a six month development of our system headed up by Hubert, one of our lead staff instructors Chris Bustad and I ran our first PFI Adaptive Freediver Instructor program for five of our PFI Instructors. In October 2016, we ran our first full program within the PFI Adaptive Freediver standards and procedures in Miami with Chris and Hubert.

Q:  Is there a minimum set of requirements that Adaptive students have to fulfill before they qualify? Does it differ depending on their disability?

A: A person with disabilities is like any other person with a passion to learn new skills, however there may be additional medical approvals required depending on the particular disability or medical condition. Also, the level and type of disability may dictate the direction, learning strategies, tempo, and student ratios. Disabilities aren’t always apparent; they can be physical or cognitive or learning disabilities, and our instructors are trained to assess this and adjust their instruction style accordingly. For example, teaching a below-the-elbow amputee is relatively similar to training an able bodied person, and the  training process and student to instructor ratios need not be adjusted. Working with a low-level paraplegic person, however, requires more time, skill development, technique adaptation, and adjustment of the student to instructor ratio to one-on-one. Similarly, a person with a learning disability may require a more individualized approach to instruction.

Q: Give some examples of adaptation that may be required. For example, weight distribution and the buddy system are different for disabled scuba divers. Is that true for freedivers as well?

A:  What’s important to understand is that the basic philosophy of the system is predicated on the idea that there is a potential, but not always inevitable, requirement to adapt the training standards for a person with a disability. Just because you have a disability doesn’t necessarily mean you have to take an Adaptive Freediver program. If a person’s disability doesn’t affect their ability to learn and participate with able-bodied divers, and if they are able to complete all the training and safety objectives, then despite the disability, there is no need for an adaptation.

However, when a person’s disability may affect their ability to learn within a standard class, or if they are unable to complete specific training standards (for instance they can’t complete a constant weight dive with fins to 25m/82ft because of paraplegia), or if they can’t effectively and properly provide safety to their dive buddy or themselves, then they need to work within an Adaptive Freediver program where the standards have been carefully thought out to provide education while still maintaining safety particular to that individual's needs. 

For example, a person who has no use of their legs (paraplegia) is unable to perform finning to depth and back and must rely on free immersion (pulling to depth and back with one’s arms), but they must also be able to independently get back to the surface on their own in an emergency situation. Or if a person can perform all necessary diving skills, but cannot adequately provide in-water rescue breathing to a blacked-out diver, then recognition of that important safety reality must be made, and they may qualify for a different level of certification. This is where the original HSA system of multi-level certification became important to PFI and why we adopted their system by certifying freedivers as either an Adaptive A or Adaptive  B freediver, which distinguishes between the various degrees of ability to comply with standards.

  • Adaptive A: The student has successfully challenged all of the PFI Adaptive Freediver Physical Performance Standards, demonstrating that he or she can safely freedive, solve basic personal emergencies, help another freediver in distress, and perform basic rescues. They have shown, by successfully challenging these standards, that they can perform the skills required to be an effective buddy and are certified to dive with one other certified freediver.
  • Adaptive B: The student has successfully challenged those PFI Adaptive Freediver Physical Performance Standards that demonstrate their ability to safely freedive and to solve basic emergencies. However, they are unable to successfully challenge those Performance Standards that demonstrate their ability to help another diver in distress. Therefore, the Adaptive B Freediver is certified to freedive with TWO BUDDIES that are certified Level A or above. In case of emergency, this system will provide an effective dive buddy for all members of the dive team.

An example of what this can look like is that of a woman who was paraplegic and taking an Intermediate Freediver program at a quarry in Ottawa. She was very buoyant and couldn’t control her legs and body position during ascent/descent. We distributed weight on her neck, waist, knees, and ankles, which improved her trim so she would be balanced. But head-down descents weren’t going to work for her, so we created a lanyard around her ankle that would secure her to the line. Effectively, she would breathe-up head up, sitting on a noodle with her ankles attached to the line and would then pull herself down the line free immersion-style in a heads-up position. Once at depth, she could swim unassisted to the surface and if an emergency arose, she could also ditch her waist weight belt where more than 50% of her weight was located to achieve better buoyancy. So in a cold quarry in Ottawa, wearing 6.5mm wetsuit, this determined woman got to 22 meters where she spent 15 seconds looking at a sunken mini-sub she’d only seen before on scuba, and then self-propelled back to the surface. Also, because of her inability to control her legs, there were a couple safety skills she was unable to do when it came to rescuing another diver, so she was certified as PFI Adaptive Freediver B.

Q:  What is the most common disability you come across in your students?

A: Amputations, by far. However within the able-bodied community, we find it is most often ego : )

Q: Do you teach many veterans? Can they get grants to attend your program?

A: We’ve taught a number of veterans and there may be grants available depending on the country and the organization offering the grant. We are currently working toward setting up veteran-specific programs. This is one of Chris Bustad’s passions, and it will be his focus with the program as we move forward.

Q:  How has your program affected your students physically and mentally? Have you had any students with PTSD?

A: It’s empowering for them. It instills confidence, just as it does with able-bodied students. For those that will primarily be scuba divers, it provides a whole new level of ability and self-safety. We also have several people with amputations who have given up scuba and become avid scooter freedivers because it gives them a whole new sense of freedom and power. Where their disability would have limited their movement and propulsion, they can now zip around with freedom and still have all the self-safety skills needed to get to the surface should the scooter fail.

Q: How and where can a freediving instructor take a course to help them teach disabled freedivers?

A: We’re working on our schedule to offer a number of programs, but our Adaptive Freediver Instructor program is developed in conjunction with our regular programs, philosophies, strategies, and techniques. Therefore, as a pre-requisite, one must be an active status PFI Instructor.

Q: Is the course taught outside the USA?

A: We’ve taught this program primarily in the USA and Canada and will be offering more programs for interested freedivers and PFI instructors globally in the future.

Q: What’s the most rewarding part of your job?

A: We didn't start down the road of developing the PFI Adaptive Freediver program for its market potential and potential revenue. In fact, when you look at the student-to-instructor ratios, the additional time required for the program, and many other variables, you can see where the business side of it falls off quickly. I feel very fortunate with my career path, my success within it, and the amazing people that I’ve met along the way, and I feel like this is a way of showing that gratitude and sharing my love of the ocean with others, particularly those who might not have that opportunity without our program. I’ve always had the philosophy and true belief that everyone, at some level of participation, should be able to enjoy our underwater world, and I’m thrilled to be able to help.

For future details and to book training for your group please call or email us using the information below:

Phone: 866-388-6595


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